Posted by ricardo marcenaro | Posted in Music: Dmitri Kabalevs - Requiem Op. 72 - Data - 3 Vids - Links to more | Posted on 13:30
Dmitri Kabalevsky Requiem for mezzo-soprano, baritone, children's chorus, chorus & orchestra Op. 72
for soloists, mixed chorus, children's chorus and orchestra
Text by Robert Rozhdestvensky (1932 - 1994)
Valentina Levko (mezzo-soprano)
Vladimir Valaitis (baritone)
The Choir of Artistic Education Institute
Moscow Symphony Orchestra
Image: "The Defence of Sevastopol" by Aleksandr Deyneka
Kabalevsky Requiem Part II
He helped to set up the Union of Soviet Composers in Moscow and remained one of its leading figures. He was a prolific composer of piano music and chamber music; many of his piano works have been performed by Vladimir Horowitz. He is probably best known in the West for the "Comedians' Galop" from The Comedians Suite, Op. 26 and his third piano concerto.
Kabalevsky was born in Saint Petersburg. His father was a mathematician and encouraged him to study mathematics; however, in early life he maintained a fascination with the arts, and became an accomplished young pianist, including a three-year stint as a pianist in silent theatres. He also dabbled in poetry and painting. In 1925, against his father's wishes, he accepted a place at the Moscow Conservatory, studying composition under Nikolai Myaskovsky and piano with Alexander Goldenweiser. In the same year he joined PROKULL (Production Collective of Student Composers), a student group affiliated with Moscow Conservatory aimed at bridging the gap between the modernism of the ACM and the utilitarian "agitprop" music of the RAPM. He became a professor at the Moscow Conservatory in 1932.
During World War II, he wrote many patriotic songs, having joined the Communist Party in 1940, and was the editor of Sovetskaya Muzyka for its special six-volume publishing run during the war. He also composed and performed many pieces for silent movies and some theatre music.
In 1948, when Andrei Zhdanov declared his resolution on the directions that Soviet music should take, Kabalevsky was originally on the list of named composers who were the most guilty of formalism; however, due to his connections with official circles, his name was removed. Another theory states that Kabalevsky's name was only on the list because of his position in the leadership of the Union of Soviet Composers.
In general, Kabalevsky was not as adventurous as his contemporaries in terms of harmony and preferred a more conventional diatonicism, interlaced with chromaticism and major-minor interplay. Unlike fellow composer Sergei Prokofiev, he embraced the ideas of socialist realism, and his post-war works have been characterized as "popular, bland, and successful," though this judgement is attributed to many other composers of the time, and some of Kabalevsky's best-known "youth works" date from this era (the Violin Concerto, the First Cello Concerto).
Perhaps Kabalevsky's most important contribution to the world of music-making is his consistent efforts to connect children to music. Not only did he write music specifically directed at bridging the gap between children's technical skills and adult aesthetics, but during his lifetime he set up a pilot program of music education in twenty-five Soviet schools. Kabalevsky himself taught a class of seven-year-olds for a time, teaching them how to listen attentively and put their impressions into words. His writings on this subject were published in the United States in 1988 as Music and education: a composer writes about musical education.
In 1961, Kabalevsky made some stereo recordings, conducting his Overture Pathetique, Spring, and Songs or Morning, which were released in the U.S. in 1975 on the Westminster Gold label.
He was awarded a number of state honors for his musical works (including three Stalin Prizes). Kabalevsky had become quite a force in musical education. He was elected the head of the Commission of Musical Esthetic Education of Children in 1962 as well as being elected president of the Scientific Council of Educational Esthetics in the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR in 1969. Kabalevsky also received the honorary degree of president of the International Society of Musical Education. Kabalevsky wrote for all musical genres and was consistently faithful to the ideals of socialist realism. In Russia, Kabalevsky is most noted for his vocal songs, cantatas, and operas while overseas he is known for his orchestral music. Kabalevsky frequently travelled overseas; he was a member of the Soviet Committee for the Defense of Peace as well as a representative for the Promotion of Friendship between the Soviet Union and foreign countries.
His notable students included Leo Smit.
He died in Moscow on 14 February 1987.
Honours and awards
This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Russian Wikipedia.
People's Artist of the RSFSR (1954).
People's Artist of USSR (1963).
Hero of Socialist Labour (1974).
Four Orders of Lenin (1964, 1971, 1974, 1984)
Order of the Red Banner of Labour (1966)
Order of the Badge of Honour (1940)
Lenin Prize (1972) – a new version of the opera "Colas Breugnon" (1968)
first class (1946) – for the 2nd quartet (1945)
second class (1949) – Concerto for Violin and Orchestra (1948)
second class – for the opera "Taras Family" (1950)
USSR State Prize (1980) – for the 4th Concerto for Piano and Orchestra ("Prague") (1979)
Glinka State Prize of the RSFSR (1966) – for "Requiem" for soloists, two choirs and orchestra (1962)
Lenin Komsomol Prize (1984)
List of compositions by Dmitry Kabalevsky.
Op. 24: Colas Breugnon, opera in 3 acts (1936–1938)
Op. 25: Music to the play Two Songs, after N. Shestakov (1937)
Op. 28: Golden Ears, ballet in 3 acts (1939–1940)
Op. 37: In the Fire, opera in 4 acts (1942)
Op. 47: The Taras Family, opera in 4 acts (1947–1950)
Op. 53: Nikita Vershinin, opera in 4 acts (1954–1955)
Op. 58: Song of Spring, operetta in 3 acts (1957)
Op. 83: The Sisters, opera in 3 acts (1968–1969)
Op. 90: Colas Breugnon, opera in 3 acts (second version) (1967–1968)
Op. 18: Symphony No. 1 in C sharp minor (1932)
Op. 19: Symphony No. 2 in C minor (1934)
Op. 22: Symphony No. 3 Requiem, on texts of N. Assayev, for chorus and orchestra (1933)
Op. 54: Symphony No. 4 in C minor (1956)
Op. 24A: Suite from Colas Breugnon (1938)
Op. 26: The Comedians, suite for small orchestra (1938–1940)
Op. 28A: Suite from Golden Ears (1939–1940)
Op. 29: Suite for Jazz Orchestra (1940)
Op. 56: Romeo and Julia, musical sketches for large symphony orchestra (1956)
Op. 64: Pathetique Overture (1960)
Op. 65: Spring, symphonic poem (1960)
Op. 78: To the Memory of the Heroes of Gorlovka, symphonic picture (1965)
Op. 85: The Eternal Flame in Bryansk, symphonic poem
Op. 95: The Heroes of the Revolution of 1905, for wind orchestra (1974)
Op. 96: ISME-Fanfares (1974)
Op. 9: Piano Concerto No. 1 in A minor (1928)
Op. 23: Piano Concerto No. 2 in G minor (1935)
Op. 50: Piano Concerto No. 3 in D major 'Youth' (1952)
WoO: Fantasy in F minor after Schubert D 940, for piano and orchestra (1961)
Op. 75: Rhapsody on a Theme of the Song Schoolyears, for piano and orchestra (1963)
Op. 99: Piano Concerto No. 4 "Prague Concerto" (1975)
Op. 48: Violin Concerto in C major (1948)
Op. 49: Cello Concerto No. 1 in G minor (1948–1949)
Op. 77: Cello Concerto No. 2 in C minor (1964)
Op. 12: Poem of Struggle, after A. Sharov, for chorus and orchestra (1930–1931)
Op. 15: Music to the Radiocomposition Galitsiskaya Zacheria, after B. Yansens, for soloists, chorus and orchestra (1931)
Op. 31: Parade of the Youth, for children's chorus and orchestra (1941)
Op. 33: Three Vocal-Monologues, for voice and orchestra (1941)
Op. 35: Vast Motherland, cantata for mezzo-soprano, bass, chorus and orchestra (1941–1942)
Op. 36: Revenger of the People, suite on text by Y. Dolmatovski for mixed chorus and orchestra (1942)
Op. 57: Song of Tomorrow, Spring and Peace, cantata for children's chorus and orchestra (1957–1958)
Op. 63: The Leninists, cantata after Y. Dolmatovski for three choruses and large symphony orchestra (1958–1959)
Op. 72: Requiem, for soloists, mixed chorus, children's chorus and orchestra (1962)
Op. 82: On the Motherland, cantata after Z. Solodar, for children's chorus and orchestra (1965)
Op. 93: A Letter to the 30th Century, oratorio (1972)
Op. 8: String Quartet No. 1 in A minor (1928)
Op. 44: String Quartet No. 2 in G minor (1945)
Op. 21: Improvisation for Violin and Piano (from the music of the film Night of St. Petersburg) (1934)
Op. 69: Rondo for Violin and Piano (1961)
Op. 80: Pieces for Violin and Piano (1965)
Op. 2: Two Pieces for Cello and Piano (1927)
Op. 49: Cello Concerto No. 1 in G minor (1948 and 1949)
Op. 68: Etudes in Major and Minor for Cello Solo (1961)
Op. 71: Sonata for Cello and Piano, in B-flat major (1962)
Op. 77: Cello Concerto No. 2 in C minor (1964)
Op. 79: To the Memory of Sergei Prokofiev, rondo for cello and piano (1965)
Op. 1: Three Preludes (1925)
Op. 3: Album of Children's Pieces (1927–1940)
Op. 5: Four Preludes (1927–1928)
Op. 6: Piano Sonata No. 1 in F major (1927)
Op. 13 No. 1: Piano Sonatina No. 1 in C major (1930)
Op. 13 No. 2: Piano Sonatina No. 2 in G minor (1933)
Op. 14: From the Life of a Pioneer, pieces for piano (1931)
Op. 20: Four Preludes (1933–1934)
Op. 27: Thirty Children's Pieces (1937–1938)
Op. 30: Three Pieces (1939)
Op. 38: Twenty-Four Preludes (dedicated to N. Miaskovsky) (1943–1944)
Op. 39: Twenty-Four Easy Pieces (1944)
Op. 40: Easy Variations in D major (Toccata) and in A minor (1944)
Op. 45: Piano Sonata No. 2 in E flat major (1945)
Op. 46: Piano Sonata No. 3 in F major (1946)
Op. 51: Easy Variations, volume 2: Five Variations on Folk-Themes (1952)
Op. 59: Rondo in A minor (1958)
Op. 60: Four Easy Rondos (1958)
Op. 61: Preludes and Fugues (1958–1959)
Op. 81: Spring-Dances (1965)
Op. 84: Recitative and Rondo (1967)
Op. 86: In The Camp of the Pathfinders, six pieces (1968)
Op. 87: Variations on Folk-Themes (1967)
Op. 88: Six Pieces (1971)
Op. 89: Thirty-Five Easy Pieces (1972–1974)
Op. 93A: Lyric Melodies (1971–1972)
Op. 4:Tanets (song in 4th grade piano exam)
Op. 7: Two Songs after M. Artamonov and V. Shukovski, for high voice and piano (1928)
Op. 10: Three Songs after M. Gerassimov, M. Artamonov and N. Kliuyev, for voice and piano (1929–1930)
Op. 11: Eight Merry Songs after V. Kataev, for voice and piano (1929–1930)
Op. 16: Three Songs after E. Musam, A. Sharov and A. Surkov, for low voice and piano (1931–1932)
Op. 17: Eight Songs after O. Vissotskaya, A. Prishelts and A. Barto, for children's chorus and piano (1932)
Op. 32: Two Songs after A. Bezemenski and N. Vladimirski, for voice and piano (1941)
Op. 34: Three Songs after S. Marshak, for voice and piano (1941)
Op. 41: Seven Merry Songs after S. Marshak, for voice and piano (1944–1945)
Op. 42: Four Funny Songs after S. Marshak and S. Michalkov, for voice and piano (1945)
Op. 43: Two Russian Folk-Songs, for bass or tenor and piano (1945)
Op. 43A: Two Russian Folk-Songs, version for mezzo-soprano and piano (1964)
Op. 52: Ten Shakespeare Sonnets, for voice and piano (1953–1955)
Op. 55: Two Romances after A. Kovalenkov, for tenor and piano (1956)
Op. 62: In Fairy Tail's Forrest, musical pictures for narrator, voice and piano (1958)
Op. 66: The Camp of Friendship, songs of the pathfinders of Artek, for voice or children's chorus and piano (1961)
Op. 67: A Kitchen-Garden on View, round dances for children's chorus and piano (1961)
Op. 70: Three Dance-Songs, for voice and piano (1960)
Op. 73: Three Songs of Revolutionary Cuba, for voice and piano (1963)
Op. 74: Three Eightlines of R. Gamsatov, for mezzo-soprano and piano (1963)
Op. 76: Five Romances after R. Gamsatov, for mezzo-soprano and piano (1963–1964)
Op. 91: Conversation with a Cactus, eight children's songs after V. Viktorov for voice and piano (1969)
Op. 92: Three songs about Lenin, for children's chorus and piano (1970)
Op. 94: Three Songs-Plays after I. Rachillo, for children's chorus and piano (1973)
Op. 97: Songs of Friendship, for female chorus, children's chorus and soprano or tenor (1975)
Op. 98: Two Youth-Songs after V. Viktorov, for voice and piano (1975)
Op. 100: Time, six romances after S. Marshak for baritone and piano (1975)
Op. 101: Cry of the Song", cycle of romances after O. Tumanian for voice and piano (1978–1979)
Op. 102: " Tanets" song in grade 4 piano exam
Es considerado como uno de los grandes compositores modernos y una figura del nacionalismo soviético. Ayudó a fundar la Unión de Compositores Soviéticos en Moscú y fue una de sus figuras principales.
Nacido en el seno de una familia modesta, su padre —matemático empleado de una aseguradora— le animó a estudiar matemáticas, mostrando sin embargo ya desde joven una fascinación por las artes, siendo un buen pianista, así como también hacia sus pinitos en poesía y pintura. En 1918, su familia se traslada a Moscú, ciudad en la que completa sus estudios secundarios y asiste a clases de pintura. En 1922, comienza sus estudios en la rama económica y social en el «Instituto Engels», paralelamente a sus estudios musicales en el «Instituto Scriabin».
Contra los deseos de su padre, accede al Conservatorio de Moscú en 1925, y allí tendrá como profesores a Nikolai Myaskovsky (composición) y a Alexandre Goldenweiser (piano). Sus primeras obras datan de finales de los años 20: Tres melodías de Alexandre Blok sobre poemas de éste (1927), una Sonata para piano (1927), el Cuarteto de cuerda n° 1 (1928), un Concierto para piano (1928), y la Sonatina para piano en Do (1930).
Excelente pedagogo —en 1932 será nombrado profesor asistente de composición en el Conservatorio de Moscú y será profesor titular en 1939—, es considerado un músico volcado con los niños. Su verdadera personalidad artística aparecerá en sus obras pedagógicas para piano: De la vida de un pionero (1934), recopilación de piezas fáciles para principiantes, Treinta piezas infantiles (1937-38), 24 preludios (1943), 24 piezas fáciles (1944). Las Sonatinas de las personalidades más importantes de la vida musical soviética. Será, sucesivamente, Secretario de la «Unión de Compositores de la URSS» (1940); redactor de la revista «Sovietskaia Musika»; premiado en cuatro ediciones del Premio Stalin de Estado (1946, 1949, 1951, y 1966); Artista del Pueblo en 1963; Presidente del Consejo Científico de Estética pedagógica en la «Academia de las Ciencias Pedagógicas de la URSS» (1969) y Presidente de la «International Society of Musical Association» (1972).
Forma parte de la primera generación de compositores soviéticos. Militante del PCUS, acatará las orientaciones de la política oficial en materia de creación artística (decretos de 1948). Su obra se integra en dicha política, encontrando su lugar en las formas tradicionales y populares de su país: sus cuatro conciertos para pìano (1929, 1935, 1952 y 1975), un concierto para violín (1948) y dos conciertos para violoncello (1948-49 y 1964) son obras impregnadas de un lirismo íntimo teñido de humor y de alegría de vivir.
Sus composiciones en formas musicales más ambiciosas (sinfonías, óperas) son ciertamente interesantes, pero en ellas Kabalevski se encuentra menos cómodo. Cuatro sinfonías (1932, 1933, 1934 y 1956), cinco óperas (El maestro artesano de Clamecy o Colas Breugnon, sobre la novela de Romain Rolland (1937), Al fuego o No lejos de Moscú (1943), La Familia de Tarass (1947-50), Nikita Verchinine (1953-54) y Los germanes (1967-69)) pertenecen a esta parte de su obra. Kabalevski también compondrá una opereta, escrita en 1957, La primavera canta.
Kabalevsky no era tan aventurero como sus contemporáneos en términos de armonía y y prefirió un diatonismo convencional, ligado al cromatismo y la relación modal mayor-menor. Al contrario que su compañero Serguéi Prokófiev, en los últimos años abrazó las ideas de realismo socialista, y sus trabajos de posguerra lo reflejan. Las obras patrióticas compuestas durante los años cuarenta (La Gran Patria (1942), Los Vengadores (1942), Los Leninistas (1959), el Réquiem en memoria de aquellos que murieron en la lucha contra el fascismo (1963) y Carta al Siglo XXX (1972) no han resistido muy bien el paso del tiempo. También compuso música incidental (Los comediantes 1933), algunas bandas sonora para películas mudas, además de canciones y algún ballet.
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