Botany - Botanica: Vicia - Part 1 - Vicia cracca - Data English y espanol - Links to more Botany - Botanica

Posted by ricardo marcenaro | Posted in | Posted on 12:10


Vicia cracca

 



Vicia cracca (arveja silvestre)














Vicia cracca L. (Tufted Vetch)

 


























Vicia cracca (tufted vetch, cow vetch, bird vetch, boreal vetch), is a species of vetch native to Europe and Asia. It occurs on other continents as an introduced species, including North America, where it is a common weed. It often occurs in disturbed habitats, including old-fields and roadside ditches.

Cow Vetch is similar to a pea in growth habit, sending out noose-like tendrils from the tips of its leaves when it contacts another plant and securely fastens itself. This can cause "strangling" of smaller plants. An individual plant may reach a length (or height) of 2 m and its taproot may extend up to 1 m. The leaves are 3–8 cm long, pinnate, with 8–12 pairs of leaflets, each leaflet 5–10 mm long.

The plant is fast-growing and flowers prolifically, sending out one-sided racemes of cascading pea-flower shaped purple to violet flowers from the leaf axil during its late spring to late summer flowering period. The flowers drop off and tiny bright green seed pods start to form. Cow Vetch is very similar to Hairy Vetch (V. villosa), but is distinguished from the latter by its smooth stem.

The seed pods are 2 cm long, and like the flowers, resemble those of a very small pea. The tiny seeds within are ripe when the pods have turned black. Unripened seeds are swollen and have a green tint to them, but they unswell when they become ripe. The seed pods vary from light brown to dark brown with black spots.

Cultivation and uses

Cow Vetch is widely used as a forage crop for cattle, and is beneficial to other plants because, like other leguminous plants, it enriches the soil in which it grows by its nitrogen-fixing properties. Cow Vetch is also much appreciated by bees and butterflies as a source of nectar. The plant may also be used to curb erosion.

Owners of pet birds such as Budgerigars often use Cow Vetch as a nutritious food; the birds are especially fond of the seeds but may also eat the foliage.

Its utility as a cover crop and source of green manure has encouraged the introduction and naturalisation of Cow Vetch far beyond its native range. In North America the plant is naturalised from southern Canada to northern South Carolina; it is considered an invasive weed in some areas and its sale may be regulated.

Cow Vetch is considered by some to be a potentially detrimental species in areas where it is not native. The vetch may crowd out native plants, especially in areas of disturbed soil where the vetch may dominate before other plants have a chance to take hold. This is especially a concern in prairie and other natural habitat restoration or land reclamation projects in North America.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicia_cracca

 




Vicia cracca, la arveja silvestre (que no debe confundirse con la arveja común) es una planta trepadora silvestre de la familia de las fabáceas.

Descripción

Sus tallos pubescentes alcanzan los 2 m de altura. Tiene hojas pinnadas con hasta doce foliolos, acabados en zarcillos, de contorno lanceolado. Las inflorescencias están formadas por hasta 40 flores azuladas, con el cáliz marcadamente más largo que el tubo, que salen de un largo pedúnculo. Los frutos, como en todas las especies del género, se presentan en vainas delgadas que miden hasta 3 cm de longitud.

Es muy similar a otras especies del género, diferenciándose sobre todo por la forma de sus hojas y frutos.

Hábitat

Se encuentra generalmente en sitios húmedos, orillas de ríos, laderas de caminos, setos o campos de cultivo.
Distribución

Se encuentra en sotos, prados, herbazales húmedos en la orla del quejigal, pinar, hayedo y bosques de ribera; a una altitud de 0-1950 metros en casi toda Europa, N, NE y W de Asia y Norte de África; introducida en Norteamérica. N de España y Sistema Ibérico.
Taxonomía

Vicia cracca fue descrita por Carlos Linneo y publicado en Species Plantarum 2: 735. 1753.1

Citología

Número de cromosomas de Vicia cracca (Fam. Leguminosae) y táxones infraespecíficos: 2n=122

Etimología

Vicia: nombre genérico que deriva del griego bíkion, bíkos, latinizado vicia, vicium = la veza o arveja (Vicia sativa L., principalmente).3

cracca: epíteto

Subespecies

    Vicia cracca ssp. cracca
    Vicia cracca var. canescens Franch. & Sav.
    Vicia cracca var. japonica Miq.

Sinonimia:

    Vicia hiteropus Freyn
    Vicia lilacina Ledeb.
    Cracca major Gren. & Godr.
    Vicia heteropus Freyn
    Vicia macrophylla (Maxim.)B.Fedtsch.
    Vicia oiana Honda
    Vicia oreophila Zertova
    Vicia variabilis Grossh.4

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicia_cracca





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Botany - Botanica: Vicia - Part 1 - Vicia cracca - Data English y espanol - Links to more Botany - Botanica



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