Painter: Kandinsky Vasili - Part 1 - In English y Español

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Bleu montagne

Tableau a la tache rouge



 

Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (clic here Wiki) (English pronunciation: /kənˈdɪnski/; Russian: Васи́лий Васи́льевич Канди́нский, Vasilij Vasil'evič Kandinskij; 4 December [O.S. 4 December] 1866 – 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter, and art theorist. He is credited with painting the first modern abstract[citation needed] works.
Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa. He enrolled at the University of Moscow and chose to study law and economics. Quite successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship (chair of Roman Law) at the University of Dorpat—he started painting studies (life-drawing, sketching and anatomy) at the age of 30.
In 1896 he settled in Munich and studied first in the private school of Anton Ažbe and then at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich. He went back to Moscow in 1914 after World War I started. He was unsympathetic to the official theories on art in Moscow and returned to Germany in 1921. There he taught at the BauhausNazis closed it in 1933. He then moved to France where he lived the rest of his life, and became a French citizen in 1939. He died at Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1944.

Artistic periods

Kandinsky's creation of purely abstract work followed a long period of development and maturation of intense theoretical thought based on his personal artistic experiences. He called this devotion to inner beauty, fervor of spirit, and deep spiritual desire inner necessity, which was a central aspect of his art.
Kandinsky learned from a variety of sources life in Moscow. Later in his life, he would recall being fascinated and unusually stimulated by color as a child. The fascination with color symbolism and psychology continued as he grew. In 1889 he was part of an ethnographic research group that travelled to the Vologda region north of Moscow. In Looks on the Past he relates that the houses and churches were decorated with such shimmering colors that, upon entering them, he had the impression that he was moving into a painting. The experience and his study of the folk art in the region, in particular the use of bright colors on a dark background, was reflected in much his early work. A few years later, he first related the act of painting to creating music in the manner for which he would later become noted and wrote, "Color is the keyboard, the eyes are the harmonies, the soul is the piano with many strings. The artist is the hand that plays, touching one key or another, to cause vibrations in the soul."
It was not until 1896, at the age of 30, that Kandinsky gave up a promising career teaching law and economics to enroll in art school in Munich. He was not immediately granted admission in Munich and began learning art on his own. Also in 1896, prior to leaving Moscow, he saw an exhibit of paintings by Monet and was particularly taken with the famous impressionistic Haystacks which, to him, had a powerful sense of color almost independent of the objects themselves. Later he would write about this experience:
That it was a haystack the catalogue informed me. I could not recognize it. This non-recognition was painful to me. I considered that the painter had no right to paint indistinctly. I dully felt that the object of the painting was missing. And I noticed with surprise and confusion that the picture not only gripped me, but impressed itself ineradicably on my memory. Painting took on a fairy-tale power and splendour.
He was similarly influenced during this period by Richard Wagner's Lohengrin which, he felt, pushed the limits of music and melody beyond standard lyricism.[citation needed]
Kandinsky was also spiritually influenced by H. P. Blavatsky (1831–1891), the most important exponent of Theosophy in modern times. Theosophical theory postulates that creation is a geometrical progression, beginning with a single point. The creative aspect of the forms is expressed by the descending series of circles, triangles, and squares. Kandinsky's book Concerning the Spiritual In Art (1910) and Point and Line to Plane (1926) echoed this basic Theosophical tenet.

Artistic metamorphosis (1896–1911)

Kandinsky's time at art school, typically considered difficult to get through, was eased by the fact that he was older and more settled than the other students. It was during this time that he began to emerge as a true art theorist in addition to being a painter. The number of existing paintings increased at the beginning of the 20thSunday, Old Russia (1904) where Kandinsky recreates a highly colorful (and fanciful) view of peasants and nobles before the walls of a town. Riding Couple (1907) depicts a man on horseback, holding a woman with tenderness and care as they ride past a Russian town with luminous walls across a river. Yet the horse is muted, while the leaves in the trees, the town, and the reflections in the river glisten with spots of color and brightness. The work shows the influence of pointillism in the way the depth of field is collapsed into a flat luminescent surface. Fauvism is also apparent in these early works. Colors are used to express the artist's experience of subject matter, not to describe objective nature. Perhaps the most important of Kandinsky's paintings from the first decade of the 1900s was The Blue Rider (1903), which shows a small cloaked figure on a speeding horse rushing through a rocky meadow. The rider's cloak is a medium blue, and the shadow cast is a darker blue. In the foreground are more amorphous blue shadows, presumably the counterparts of the fall trees in the background. The Blue Rider in the painting is prominent, but not clearly defined, and the horse has an unnatural gait (which Kandinsky must have known). Indeed, some believe that a second figure, a child perhaps, is being held by the rider, though this could just as easily be another shadow from a solitary rider. This type of intentional disjunction, allowing viewers to participate in the creation of the artwork, would become an increasingly conscious technique used by Kandinsky in subsequent years, culminating in the (often nominally) abstract works of the 1911–1914 period. In The Blue Rider Kandinsky shows the rider more as a series of colors than of specific details. In and of itself, The Blue Rider is not exceptional in that regard when compared to contemporary painters, but it does show the direction that Kandinsky would take only a few years later.
From 1906 to 1908 Kandinsky spent a great deal of time travelling across Europe, (he was an associate of the Blue Rose symbolist group of Moscow) until he settled in the small Bavarian town of Murnau. The Blue Mountain (1908–1909) was painted at this time and shows more of his trend towards pure abstraction. A mountain of blue is flanked by two broad trees, one yellow and one red. A procession of some sort with three riders and several others crosses at the bottom. The faces, clothing, and saddles of the riders are each a single color, and neither they nor the walking figures display any real detail. The flat planes and the contours also are indicative of some influences by the Fauvists. The broad use of color in The Blue Mountain, illustrates Kandinsky's move towards an art in which color is presented independently of form, and which each color is given equal attention. The composition has also become more planar, as it seems that the painting itself is divided into four sections- the sky, the red tree, the yellow tree, and the blue mountain containing the three riders






Vasili Vasílievich Kandinski (clic aquí Wiki) (ruso: Васи́лий Васи́льевич Канди́нский) (Moscú, 4 de diciembre de 1866 - Neuilly-sur-Seine, 13 de diciembre de 1944) fue un pintor ruso, precursor de la abstracción en pintura y teórico del arte, con él se considera que comienza la abstracción lírica.

Primeros años 

Nació en Moscú en 1866, en 1871 su familia se traslada a Odesa. De 1886 a 1889 estudia Leyes en Moscú. En 1896 rechaza un puesto docente en la Universidad de Dorpat para estudiar Arte en Múnich.
En 1901 funda el grupo Phalanx, cuyo propósito principal es introducir las vanguardias francesas en el provinciano ambiente muniqués, para lo cual abre una escuela en la que da clases. Sus pinturas de los primeros años del siglo son paisajes ejecutados con espátula, en un principio sombríos, para luego adquirir una intensidad casi fauve; también pinta temas fantásticos basados en tradiciones rusas o en la Edad Mediatemple sobre un papel oscuro, para dar una impresión de superficie transparente, iluminada desde atrás. La consistencia tonal del claroscuro enfatiza el esquema borrando la distinción entre las figuras y el fondo, resultando una composición casi abstracta. alemana; este período está marcado por la experimentación técnica, en particular, en el uso del
En 1902 expone por primera vez con la Secession de Berlín y realiza sus primeras xilografías. En 1903 y 1904 viaja por Italia, Países Bajos, África y visita Rusia. En 1904 expone en el Salón de Otoño de París.
En 1909 es elegido presidente de la Nueva Asociación de Artistas de Múnich (NKVM). La primera exposición del grupo tiene lugar en la galería Thannhauser de Múnich ese mismo año. Hacia el final de la década, las pinturas de Kandinski denotan una gran tendencia a la plenitud por la equivalencia en intensidad de las áreas de color y la superficie reluciente que destruye toda ilusión de profundidad. Las series de cuadros de jinetes en combate comienzan en 1909 y, en ellas, la línea del horizonte se va erradicando gradualmente, al igual que otras referencias espaciales.

Madurez

En 1910 hace su primera acuarela abstracta, en la que(...) en las manchas más oscuras predominan dos colores, el rojo y el azul, que evidentemente están relacionados porque siempre están juntos. El rojo es un color cálido y tiende a expandirse; el azul es frío y tiende a contraerse. Kandinski no aplica la ley de los contrastes simultáneos sino que la comprueba; se sirve de dos colores como de dos fuerzas manejables que se pueden sumar o restar y, según los casos, es decir, según los impulsos que siente, se vale de ambas para que se limiten o se impulsen mutuamente. Hay también signos lineales, filiformes; son, en cierto modo, indicaciones de posibles movimientos, son trazos que sugieren la dirección y el ritmo de las manchas que vagan por el papel. Ponen en movimiento a toda la acuarela (...)" (Argan).
En Composición IV de 1911, las figuras están tan simplificadas, el color es tan arbitrario y el espacio tan confuso que es imposible distinguir el tema sin la referencia de los cuadros anteriores de la serie. Especialmente desorientador para el espectador es el modo en que se usa la línea, tanto como elemento independiente, o bien como límite para el color.
En 1911 Kandinski y Franz Marc se retiran del NKVM y sientan las bases de Der Blaue Reiter, editando un almanaque en 1912. La primera exposición tiene lugar en diciembre, en la galería Thannhauser de Múnich.
En 1911 Kandinski publica De lo Espiritual en el Arte; en 1912 se publica el almanaque con obras de Kandinski y Marc, y tiene lugar la segunda exposición del Blaue Reiter en la galería Hans Goltz. Este mismo año tiene lugar la primera exposición individual de Kandinski en la galería Der Sturm de Berlín. Los temas preferidos de Kandinski en esta época son violentos y apocalípticos, y tienen su origen en las imágenes religiosas populares de Alemania y Rusia. Hacia 1912 su trabajo ha pasado ya por diversas evoluciones productivas.
En 1913, cuando pinta Líneas negras, ya no se puede hablar de abstracción a partir de un tema; el color y la línea han tomado por sí mismos tal expresividad que ya no siguen un modelo preestablecido. Obras como ésta son las primeras verdaderamente abstractas.

 


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