Music: Choir of Westminster Abbey - Miserere Mei Deus (Gregorio Allegri) - Lyrics - Data en Espanol and English

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Choir of Westminster Abbey


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Choir of Westminster Abbey - Miserere Mei Deus (Gregorio Allegri)

El Miserere —también llamado Miserere mei, Deus— es una composición creada por Gregorio Allegri en el siglo XVII durante el mandato del papa Urbano VIII. Se trata de la musicalización del salmo 51, llamado Miserere, del Antiguo Testamento. Se compuso para ser cantado en la capilla Sixtina durante los maitines los miércoles y viernes de Semana Santa. El original se canta en latín.

Historia

Allegri lo realizó hacia 1638. Está escrita para dos coros, uno de cuatro voces y otro de cinco. Uno de los coros canta una versión simple del tema original y el otro coro, a cierta distancia, canta un comentario más elaborado. Es uno de los mejores ejemplos del estilo polifónico del Renacimiento, llamado en el siglo XVII stile antico o prima prattica, y denota las influencias combinadas de la escuela romana (Palestrina) y veneciana (Andrea y Giovanni Gabrieli, el coro doble).

En un principio, se impuso una prohibición de ejecutar la obra fuera de la capilla Sixtina —incluso se amenazaba con la excomunión a quien la copiara—, a pesar de lo cual se hicieron algunas copias. El emperador Leopoldo I de Austria solicitó y obtuvo una copia, que conservó en la Biblioteca Imperial de Viena. Sin embargo, cuando la hizo ejecutar pensó que había sido engañado. El papa entonces despidió al maestro de capilla de la época, quien tuvo que trasladarse a Viena para explicar las técnicas de ejecución y las improvisaciones —los llamados abbellimenti que nunca eran escritos, sino que eran pasados de intérprete a intérprete en el coro de la capilla— que según él no podían ser reflejados en el papel, a fin de poder ser contratado nuevamente. El padre Giovanni Battista Martini (1706-1784) poseía otra copia. En 1770, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart con tan sólo 14 años, tras escuchar la obra tan sólo una vez, la transcribió al papel de memoria, para luego hacerle correcciones menores en una segunda ocasión. Este hecho es ampliamente recordado como muestra del genio de Mozart, quien incluso fue hecho caballero de la Orden de la Espuela de Oro por el papa al enterarse del hecho. La copia de Mozart, que reflejaba las improvisaciones, no ha sido conservada. En 1771, el Dr. Charles Burney, después de un viaje a Italia, publicó en Londres una versión de la obra, basada posiblemente en la copia de Martini, la de Mozart y, quizás, una copia obtenida de la propia capilla Sixtina.


Texto

Original

El texto original fue escrito en Latin:

    Miserere mei, Deus: secundum magnam misericordiam tuam.
    Et secundum multitudinem miserationum tuarum, dele iniquitatem meam.
    Amplius lava me ab iniquitate mea: et a peccato meo munda me.
    Quoniam iniquitatem meam ego cognosco: et peccatum meum contra me est semper.
    Tibi soli peccavi, et malum coram te feci: ut justificeris in sermonibus tuis, et vincas cum judicaris.
    Ecce enim in iniquitatibus conceptus sum: et in peccatis concepit me mater mea.
    Ecce enim veritatem dilexisti: incerta et occulta sapientiae tuae manifestasti mihi.
    Asperges me hysopo, et mundabor: lavabis me, et super nivem dealbabor.
    Auditui meo dabis gaudium et laetitiam: et exsultabunt ossa humiliata.
    Averte faciem tuam a peccatis meis: et omnes iniquitates meas dele.
    Cor mundum crea in me, Deus: et spiritum rectum innova in visceribus meis.
    Ne proiicias me a facie tua: et spiritum sanctum tuum ne auferas a me.
    Redde mihi laetitiam salutaris tui: et spiritu principali confirma me.
    Docebo iniquos vias tuas: et impii ad te convertentur.
    Libera me de sanguinibus, Deus, Deus salutis meae: et exsultabit lingua mea justitiam tuam.
    Domine, labia mea aperies: et os meum annuntiabit laudem tuam.
    Quoniam si voluisses sacrificium, dedissem utique: holocaustis non delectaberis.
    Sacrificium Deo spiritus contribulatus: cor contritum, et humiliatum, Deus, non despicies.
    Benigne fac, Domine, in bona voluntate tua Sion: ut aedificentur muri Ierusalem.
    Tunc acceptabis sacrificium justitiae, oblationes, et holocausta: tunc imponent super altare tuum vitulos.

Traducción al español

    Ten piedad de mí, oh Dios, por tu gran bondad
    De acuerdo con la multitud de tus piedades, elimina todas mis ofensas.
    Lávame más de mi maldad, y límpiame de mi pecado.
    Porque yo reconozco mis faltas y mi pecado está siempre delante de mí.
    Contra ti solo he pecado, y he hecho lo malo delante de tus ojos: que seas reconocido justo en tu palabra, y claro cuando sea juzgado.
    He aquí, yo nací en iniquidad, y en el pecado de mi madre fui concebido.
    Pero he aquí, que requieres la verdad en lo íntimo, y me haces entender la sabiduría secretamente.
    Tú purifícame con hisopo, y seré limpio: Tú lávame y quedaré más blanco que la nieve.
    Tú me haces oir hablar de gozo y alegría: como los huesos que han abatido mi regocijo.
    No vuelvas tu rostro hacia mis pecados, y saca todas mis maldades.
    Házme de un corazón limpio, oh Dios, y renueva un espíritu recto dentro de mí.
    No me alejes de tu presencia, y no tomes tu Espíritu Santo de mí.
    O dame la alegría de tu ayuda nuevamente: Y afírmame con tu espíritu libre.
    Entonces voy a enseñar tus caminos a los malos, y los pecadores se convertirán a ti.
    Líbrame del pecado sanguíneo, oh Dios, Tú que eres el Dios de mi bienestar: Y cantará mi lengua tu justicia.
    Tú me abrirás los labios, oh Señor, y mi boca mostrará tu alabanza.
    Pues si hubiérais querido un sacrificio, yo os lo hubiera dado: pero no os deleitéis en los holocaustos.
    El sacrificio de Dios es un espíritu quebrantado: un corazón contrito y roto, oh Dios, no lo desprecies.
    Que seas favorable y benigno para con Sion: para que se edeifiquen los muros de Jerusalén.
    Entonces te agradarán los sacrificios de justicia, con los holocaustos y oblaciones: entonces se ofrecen becerros sobre tu altar. http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miserere_%28Allegri%29 




Miserere, (full title: Miserere mei, Deus, Latin for "Have mercy on me, O God") by Italian composer Gregorio Allegri, is a setting of Psalm 51 (50) composed during the reign of Pope Urban VIII, probably during the 1630s, for use in the Sistine Chapel during matins, as part of the exclusive Tenebrae service on Holy Wednesday and Good Friday of Holy Week.

Description and use

The Miserere is written for two choirs, one of five and one of four voices, and is an example of Renaissance polyphony surviving to the present day. One of the choirs sings a simple version of the original Miserere chant; the other, spatially separated, sings an ornamented "commentary" on this. The piece is an example of the stile antico or prima pratica; however, its constant use of the dominant seventh chord and its emphasis on polychoral techniques certainly put it out of the range of prima pratica;[citation needed] a more accurate comparison would be to the works of Giovanni Gabrieli.[citation needed]

The Tenebrae service where the Miserere would be sung normally began at around 3am. During the ritual, candles would be extinguished one by one, save for the last candle which remained alight and was then hidden. Allegri composed his setting of the Miserere for the final act within the first lesson of the Tenebrae service.


History

It was the last of twelve falsobordone Miserere settings composed and chanted at the service since 1514 and is the most popular: at some point, it became forbidden to transcribe the music and it was allowed to be performed only at those particular services, thus adding to the mystery surrounding it. Writing it down or performing it elsewhere was punishable by excommunication.[1] The setting that escaped from the Vatican is actually a conflation of verses set by Gregorio Allegri around 1638 and Tommaso Bai (also spelled "Baj"; 1650–1718) in 1714.

Three authorized copies of the work were distributed prior to 1770 – to the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, to the King of Portugal, and to Padre (Giovanni Battista) Martini.[1] However, none of them succeeded in capturing the beauty of the Miserere as performed annually in the Sistine Chapel.[citation needed] According to the popular story (backed up by family letters), the fourteen-year-old Mozart was visiting Rome, when he first heard the piece during the Wednesday service. Later that day, he wrote it down entirely from memory, returning to the Chapel that Friday to make minor corrections. Some time during his travels, he met the British historian Dr Charles Burney, who obtained the piece from him and took it to London, where it was published in 1771. Once the piece was published, the ban was lifted; Mozart was summoned to Rome by the Pope, only instead of excommunicating the boy, the Pope showered praises on him for his feat of musical genius. The work was also transcribed by Felix Mendelssohn in 1831 and Franz Liszt, and various other 18th and 19th century sources survive. Since the lifting of the ban, Allegri's Miserere has become one of the most popular a cappella choral works now performed.[citation needed]

Burney's edition did not include the ornamentation that made the work famous. The original ornamentations were Renaissance techniques that preceded the composition itself, and it was these techniques that were closely guarded by the Vatican. Few written sources (not even Burney's) showed the ornamentation, and it was this that created the legend of the work's mystery. However, the Roman priest Pietro Alfieri published an edition in 1840 with the intent of preserving the performance practice of the Sistine choir in the Allegri and Bai compositions, including ornamentation.


Recordings

Allegri's Miserere is one of the most often-recorded examples of late Renaissance music. An early and "celebrated"[2] recording of the Miserere was that made in March 1963 by the Choir of King's College, Cambridge, conducted by Sir David Willcocks, which was sung in English[3] and featured the then-treble Roy Goodman. This recording of the Miserere was originally part of a Gramophone LP recording entitled 'Evensong for Ash Wednesday' but the Miserere has subsequently been re-released on various compilation discs.

Historically informed recordings have been released by The Sixteen and The Tallis Scholars, and more recently by Tenebrae.


Text

Original

The original is written in Latin:

    Miserere mei, Deus: secundum magnam misericordiam tuam.
    Et secundum multitudinem miserationum tuarum, dele iniquitatem meam.
    Amplius lava me ab iniquitate mea: et a peccato meo munda me.
    Quoniam iniquitatem meam ego cognosco: et peccatum meum contra me est semper.
    Tibi soli peccavi, et malum coram te feci: ut justificeris in sermonibus tuis, et vincas cum judicaris.
    Ecce enim in iniquitatibus conceptus sum: et in peccatis concepit me mater mea.
    Ecce enim veritatem dilexisti: incerta et occulta sapientiae tuae manifestasti mihi.
    Asperges me hysopo, et mundabor: lavabis me, et super nivem dealbabor.
    Auditui meo dabis gaudium et laetitiam: et exsultabunt ossa humiliata.
    Averte faciem tuam a peccatis meis: et omnes iniquitates meas dele.
    Cor mundum crea in me, Deus: et spiritum rectum innova in visceribus meis.
    Ne proiicias me a facie tua: et spiritum sanctum tuum ne auferas a me.
    Redde mihi laetitiam salutaris tui: et spiritu principali confirma me.
    Docebo iniquos vias tuas: et impii ad te convertentur.
    Libera me de sanguinibus, Deus, Deus salutis meae: et exsultabit lingua mea justitiam tuam.
    Domine, labia mea aperies: et os meum annuntiabit laudem tuam.
    Quoniam si voluisses sacrificium, dedissem utique: holocaustis non delectaberis.
    Sacrificium Deo spiritus contribulatus: cor contritum, et humiliatum, Deus, non despicies.
    Benigne fac, Domine, in bona voluntate tua Sion: ut aedificentur muri Ierusalem.
    Tunc acceptabis sacrificium justitiae, oblationes, et holocausta: tunc imponent super altare tuum vitulos.

English translation

This translation is from the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, and is used in Ivor Atkins' English edition of the Miserere (published by Novello):

    Have mercy upon me, O God, after Thy great goodness
    According to the multitude of Thy mercies do away mine offences.
    Wash me thoroughly from my wickedness: and cleanse me from my sin.
    For I acknowledge my faults: and my sin is ever before me.
    Against Thee only have I sinned, and done this evil in thy sight: that Thou mightest be justified in Thy saying, and clear when Thou art judged.
    Behold, I was shapen in wickedness: and in sin hath my mother conceived me.
    But lo, Thou requirest truth in the inward parts: and shalt make me to understand wisdom secretly.
    Thou shalt purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean: Thou shalt wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.
    Thou shalt make me hear of joy and gladness: that the bones which Thou hast broken may rejoice.
    Turn Thy face from my sins: and put out all my misdeeds.
    Make me a clean heart, O God: and renew a right spirit within me.
    Cast me not away from Thy presence: and take not Thy Holy Spirit from me.
    O give me the comfort of Thy help again: and stablish me with Thy free Spirit.
    Then shall I teach Thy ways unto the wicked: and sinners shall be converted unto Thee.
    Deliver me from blood-guiltiness, O God, Thou that art the God of my health: and my tongue shall sing of Thy righteousness.
    Thou shalt open my lips, O Lord: and my mouth shall shew Thy praise.
    For Thou desirest no sacrifice, else would I give it Thee: but Thou delightest not in burnt-offerings.
    The sacrifice of God is a troubled spirit: a broken and contrite heart, O God, shalt Thou not despise.
    O be favourable and gracious unto Sion: build Thou the walls of Jerusalem.
    Then shalt Thou be pleased with the sacrifice of righteousness, with the burnt-offerings and oblations: then shall they offer young calves upon Thine altar.
    Psalm 51 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miserere_%28Allegri%29


Music: Choir of Westminster Abbey - Miserere Mei Deus (Gregorio Allegri) -  Lyrics - Data en Espanol and English

 

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